ARTICLE STRUCTURE

Title Page
The title page should include article title and following information

 Abstract word count (abstract counts should exclude key words)
 Manuscript word count (word counts should exclude abstract, acknowledgements, references, captions, tables and figure legends)
 Number of tables and figures
 Authors names and affiliations

The peer review process at the LSJP is a double-blind process and the author details are not shared with the peer reviewers with the manuscript.

Article Title
The title should be clear and concise and there is no restriction to the title length, however try to make it relevant, concise and short. Do not capitalize the first letter of each word in the title unless it is a proper noun also do not use abbreviations in the title

Abstract
An abstract should briefly state the objective, methods and procedures, main findings and principal conclusions. Try to use new and important aspects of the study. Do not use any references in abstracts and it should be structured or non-structured as described in article types. A structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs, under the following headings: objective, methods, results and conclusion.

Introduction
Introduction should include a background for the study statement of the problem and objective of the study without any sub-headings. Cite only strictly pertinent and relevant references. the hypothesis and the requirement of the research.

Methods
Methods section should include the statement of the ethical review committee, study design and/or location, duration of the study, methods of sampling, follow-up periods if any, inclusion and exclusion criteria of patients or participants, identification of the methods and apparatus and identification of all drugs and chemicals. Methods section should be organized with sub headings or in a manner with paragraphs. Research involving human or animal interactions should include an approval by an ethics committee, it does not exist then the statement, that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included.

Instruments or equipment used in the study should give the manufacturer’s name and address. Procedures of the research should be clearly described so as to facilitate others to reproduce them easily. References should be included where necessary along with limitations of methods if require.

 

Results
Present the results in a logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations and emphasize or summarise important observations. Frequencies and percentages both should be mentioned.

Discussions
The discussion should begin with a summary of the main results. These are then discussed with results of other published studies. Any new findings of the research should be emphasized and the relevance should be stated. These can be used for future research or clinical practice.
Details of methodology or introduction should not be included in the discussion. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the introduction or the results section.

Limitations of the study should be stated at the end of the discussion in a separate paragraph.

Conclusions
Conclusion should be a brief resume of the study. Do not use any finding which has not been shown in the results. Do not over-emphasize the result. Do not state any benefits which have not been studied. A new hypothesis may be included if determined by the research. No speculations should be included.


Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should be used where needed to explain and support the argument of the article and to report all outcomes identified in the Methods section. These should be numbered and provided a descriptive title.

Frequency data should be reported as "No. (%)," not as percentages alone Whenever possible, proportions and percentages should be accompanied by the actual numerator and denominator from which they were derived. Number all tables in the order of their citation in the text. Include a brief title for each table. Place tables within the manuscript.

References
All references in this list should be cited at some point in the text and should be presented in the following style

(1) Journal Articles
Shafiq, Y. M., V. Dilawar, D. Benten, and S. Iqbal (2014) Potential of bioengineering processes for therapeutic repopulation of the liver with cells. Life Sci. J. Pak. 12: 1-8.

(2) Books
Sambrook, J., E. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis (2000) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed., pp. 23-38. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA.

(3) Edited Books
Hamer, G. (2010) Chemical engineering and biotechnology. pp. 356-368. In: I. J. Higgins, D. J. Best, and J. Jones (eds.). Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK.

(4) Proceedings/Abstracts
Meyer and A. Fiechter (2004) Production of human leucocyte interferon by E. coil. Proceedings of 1rd American Congress on Biotechnology. September 10-14. Munich, Germany.

(5) Dissertations
Iqbal. M, (2012) A Study of PVL genes in the progression of furunculosis. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

(6) Patents
Prudden, J. F. (1977) Method and agent for treating inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. US Patent 4,006,224

(7) Web URL
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Submission of manuscript. http://bbe.or.kr.

World Wide Web Home page Curtin University of Technology. [Homepage of the Curtin University of Technology] [online] 2010 May 22 last update. [cited 2010 Jun 12]. Available from: URL: http://www.curtin.edu.au/